Timeline
Anne Frank
Second World War in Great Britain
Second World War international
1919
26-6-1919
The Treaty of Versailles.
Germany has lost the First World War and must pay large sums of money to the victors.
1925
12-5-1925
Otto Frank and Edith Holländer marry in Aken, Germany.
1925
18-7-1925
Mein Kampf
Hitler’s book Mein Kampf is published.
1926
6-2-1926
Margot Frank is born in Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
1929
12-6-1929
Anne Frank is born in Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
1929
25-10-1929
Wall Street collapse
With the fall of the New York Stock Exchange a worldwide economic crisis begins. Money becomes worthless, and millions of people lose their jobs.
1932
31-7-1932
The NSDAP, Adolf Hitler’s party, wins a majority in elections. Members of the NSDAP are known as Nazis.
1933
15-9-1933
Otto Frank sets up the Opekta company in Amsterdam.
1933
5-12-1933
Edith and Margot Frank move to Amsterdam.
1933
30-1-1933
Adolf Hitler becomes Chancellor, the leader of the German government.
1933
1-4-1933
Hitler’s government organises a boycott of Jewish shops, doctors and lawyers. The Nazis say that ‘real’ Germans must not buy from Jews.
1933
14-7-1933
Hitler’s government bans all other political parties. Now Hitler and his party are in total command. Germany has become a dictatorship.
1934
16-2-1934
Anne Frank is brought to Amsterdam by her uncles.
1934
19-8-1934
After the death of President von Hindenburg, Hitler also becomes President of Germany. He gives himself the title ‘Fuhrer and Reich Chancellor’.
1935
15-9-1935
Hitler’s government introduces Race Laws. German Jews have their rights taken away from them. Jews and no-Jews are no longer allowed to get married.
1938
8-12-1938
Fritz Pfeffer flees Germany for Amsterdam.
1938
9-11-1938
The Nazis destroy Jewish synagogues, shops and homes throughout Germany. More than 30,000 Jewish men are arrested, and 200 Jews are murdered. Later this night becomes known as Kristallnacht: the ‘Night of Broken Glass’.
1939
2-3-1939
Munich Agreement - allows the annexation of Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia to Germany.
1939
27-4-1939
Conscription introduced.
1939
25-8-1939
Britain and Poland sign a Mutual Assistance Treaty.
1939
31-8-1939
British fleet mobilizes.
1939
1-9-1939
Evacuation
Start of the evacuation of children from major cities to the countryside.
1939
1-9-1939
Germany attacks Poland
British government reply by demanding that Germany withdraw.
1939
2-9-1939
Distribution of gas masks starts.
1939
3-9-1939
Britain declares war
Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain announces in a radio broadcast that Britain (including Australia, New Zealand) and France are at war with Germany.
1939
4-9-1939
British Royal Airforce attacks the German Navy.
1939
5-9-1939
'Phoney War'
1939
10-9-1939
Canada declares war on Germany.
1939
1-9-1939
Germany invades Poland. Britain and France declare war on Germany. This is the beginning of the war in Europe.
1940
1-12-1940
Otto Frank’s company moves to Prinsengracht 263 in Amsterdam
1940
8-1-1940
Rationing introduced.
1940
16-3-1940
Germany bombs Scapa Flow naval base in Scotland.
1940
9-5-1940
British Prime Minister resigns
Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain resigns.
1940
10-5-1940
Winston Churchill becomes Prime Minister
Churchill becomes the new Prime Minister and forms the National Government.
1940
14-5-1940
Home Guard appeal
An appeal went out for Local Defene Volunteers (LDV) who later became known as the Home Guard.
1940
15-5-1940
Blitzkrieg
Start of the Blitzkrieg ('lightning war').
1940
26-5-1940
Dunkirk
Start of the evacuation of British, French and Belgian troops from Dunkirk in France.
1940
3-6-1940
Dunkirk evacuation ends.
1940
10-6-1940
Italy declares war
Italy declares war on Britain and France.
1940
22-6-1940
France surrenders
France is divided into two. Northern France occupied by Germany. Souther France (Vichy) governed by Marshall Pétain.
1940
28-6-1940
Britain recognises General Charles de Gaulle as Free French Leader.
1940
1-7-1940
German U boats attack Merchant ships in the Atlantic.
1940
10-7-1940
Battle of Britain begins
This is the struggle between the German and British air forces for control of British air space. The British win in March 1941.
1940
13-8-1940
Start of German bombing offensive against airfields and factories in Britain
1940
15-8-1940
Air battles and daylight raids over Britain.
1940
17-8-1940
Hitler declares a blockade of the British Isles.
1940
23-8-1940
First German air raids over Central London.
1940
25-8-1940
First British air raid over Berlin.
1940
7-9-1940
Start of the Blitz
The Blitz was the sustained bombing of the United Kingdom by Nazi Germany between 7 September 1940 and 10 May 1941.
1940
15-9-1940
Massive German air raids over London, Southampton, Bristol, Cardiff, Liverpool and Manchester.
1940
14-11-1940
Coventry destroyed
The city of Coventry, including its cathedral, is destroyed in a German bombing raid.
1940
9-12-1940
Western desert offensive begins
British army starts its offensive against Italy in North Africa
1940
29-12-1940
City of London bombed
A major bombing raid destroys most of the City of London.
1940
9-4-1940
The German army attacks Denmark and Norway.
1940
26-6-1940
France surrenders to the German forces.
1940
27-9-1940
Germany, Japan and Italy make a treaty. They promise to help each other in attacking the United States.
1941
16-7-1941
Miep and Jan Gies marry.
1941
1-9-1941
Anne and Margot are no longer allowed to go to school with non-Jewish children. They have to go to the Jewish High School in Amsterdam.
1941
22-1-1941
Tobruk taken
British and Australian troops take Tobruk in North Africa.
1941
11-2-1941
British advance in East Africa
British forces advance into Italian Somaliland in East Africa.
1941
7-3-1941
British forces arrive in Greece.
1941
11-3-1941
President Roosevelt signs the Lend-Lease Act.
1941
10-5-1941
Hess flies to Scotland
Deputy Fuhrer Rudolph Hess flies to Scotland to arrange a 'surrender'.
1941
10-5-1941
London bombed
Heavy German bombing of London again.
1941
11-5-1941
British bomb Hamburg
British reply to heavy bombing of London by bombing Hamburg.
1941
16-5-1941
End of the Blitz
German heavy bombing raids come to an end.
1941
24-5-1941
HMS Hood sunk by the Bismarck.
1941
27-5-1941
Sinking of the Bismarck
Three days after HMS Hood is sunk, the British Navy sink the Bismarck.
1941
12-7-1941
Mutual Assistance Agreement
The British and Soviets sign this agreement.
1941
14-7-1941
British occupy Syria.
1941
24-7-1941
Operation Gomorrah begins
British and Canadian aeroplanes bomb Hamburg by night, those of the Americans by day.
1941
14-8-1941
Atlantic Charter
President Roosevelt of the USA and Prime Minister Churchill of Great Britain announce the Atlantic Charter.
1941
13-11-1941
Ark Royal sunk
British air craft carrier the Ark Royal is sunk off Gibralter by a German U boat.
1941
1-12-1941
National Service Act
This act made the conscription of single women between the ages of 20 and 30 legal.
1941
8-12-1941
Britain declares war on Japan
Britain and the USA declare war on Japan after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbour and Germany's declaration of war against the USA.
1941
25-12-1941
British surrender at Hong Kong
Hong Kong falls to the Japanese.
1941
22-6-1941
Germany attacks Russia.
1941
14-8-1941
America and Britain hold secret talks on fighting together against the Germans.
1941
1-9-1941
In Germany, all Jews aged six or older must wear a yellow Star of David.
1941
3-9-1941
The first victims of the gas chambers in Auschwitz are 600 Russian prisoners of war and 250 other prisoners.
1941
11-9-1941
President Roosevelt of the USA orders that all German and Italian ships and submarines in the Atlantic Ocean should be torpedoed.
1941
7-12-1941
Pearl Harbour
Japan bombs the American fleet in Pearl Harbour. The next day America declares war on Japan, as does Britain. Germany supports Japan with a declaration of war against the United States
1942
29-1-1942
Grandmother Holländer dies.
1942
12-6-1942
Anne Frank is given a diary on her thirteenth birthday.
1942
5-7-1942
Margot Frank receives a call-up notice. She has to report for a ‘work camp’ in Germany.
1942
6-7-1942
The Frank family go into hiding in the secret annexe at Prinsengracht 263 in Amsterdam.
1942
13-7-1942
The van Pels family go into hiding in the secret annexe.
1942
16-11-1942
Fritz Pfeffer (Albert Dussel) goes into hiding in the secret annexe.
1942
26-1-1942
First US troops arrive in Great Britain.
1942
15-2-1942
Fall of Singapore
British troops in Singapore surrender to the Japanese after seven days of fighting.
1942
8-3-1942
Fall of Rangoon
Rangoon, the capital of Burma falls to the Japanese. British troops are driven out and into India.
1942
15-4-1942
Malta awarded the George Cross
The island of Malta is awarded the George Cross after being under constant siege since 1940.
1942
23-4-1942
British cathedral cities bombed
Bombing campaign by the Luftwaffe.
1942
13-5-1942
German and Italian troops surrender in North Africa.
1942
30-5-1942
First 1000 bomber air raid by British bombers on Cologne, Germany.
1942
21-6-1942
Tobruk falls
German army recaptures Tobruk in North Africa.
1942
25-6-1942
USA Army General Dwight W. Eisenhower arrives in Britain.
1942
1-7-1942
First battle of El Alamein
German army attacks British troops at El Alamein near Cairo, Egypt.
1942
7-8-1942
British General Bernard L. Montgomery takes command of the 8th Army ('Desert Rats') in North Africa.
1942
12-8-1942
Churchill and Stalin meet in Moscow.
1942
19-8-1942
Dieppe Raid
British and Canadian troops carry out the 'Dieppe Raid' to test the German defences of the port of Dieppe in France.
1942
2-9-1942
Battle of Alam Halfa
The Germans (under General Rommel) are driven back by the British (under General Montgomery) in the Battle of Alam Halfa, North Africa.
1942
27-9-1942
Start of the British offensive in Burma.
1942
18-10-1942
Hitler orders the execution of all captured British commandos.
1942
1-11-1942
British victory at El Alamein
British troops force the German army back into Tunisia after their victory at El Alamein, Egypt.
1942
8-11-1942
'Operation Torch'
Start of 'Operation Torch' when the Allies invade Morocco, Tunisia and Algeria.
1942
1-12-1942
Declaration of United Nations
The declaration is signed by the 26 allied nations.
1942
17-12-1942
Mass executions of Jews
British Foreign Secretary Eden tells the House of Commons of mass executions of Jews by the Nazis. The USA declare that these crimes will be avenged.
1942
31-12-1942
Battle of Barents Sea
Sea battle between British and German navy.
1942
20-1-1942
Wannsee Conference
High-ranking Nazis come together in a secret meeting. They discuss how to carry out a decision which Hitler had already taken in 1941: to kill all 11 million Jews in Europe.
1942
7-6-1942
Battle of Midway
The Americans defeat the Japanese navy at Midway island in the Pacific Ocean.
1942
11-6-1942
Adolph Eichmann discusses plans to deport the Jews from France, Belgium and the Netherlands with high-ranking Nazis from these countries.
1942
5-10-1942
Heinrich Himmler gives the order to transport all Jews in concentration camps in Germany to Auschwitz extermination camp.
1942
4-11-1942
The German army retreats from North Africa after it is defeated in Egypt by British troops led by Montgomery.
1943
2-1-1943
Allies take Buna, New Guinea
Allied armies defeat the Japanese at Buna.
1943
14-1-1943
Casablanca Conference
Churchill and Roosevelt meet in Casablanca, Morocco. During the conference Roosevelt announces that the war can only end with the unconditional surrender by Germany.
1943
22-1-1943
Allied victory in New Guinea
Allied armies defeat Japan at Sanananda in New Guinea.
1943
23-1-1943
British take Tripoli
Montgomery's 8th Army takes Tripoli in North Africa.
1943
8-2-1943
British Indian forces begin guerilla operations against Japan in Burma.
1943
16-3-1943
Battle of the Atlantic
Start of the Battle of the Atlantic which lasted until 20 March 1943.
1943
7-5-1943
Allies take Tunisia, North Africa.
1943
16-5-1943
'Dambusters Raid'
British air raids on the Ruhr area of Germany. This series of raids included the famous 'Dambusters Raid'.
1943
9-7-1943
Allied landings in Sicily.
1943
19-7-1943
Allies bomb Rome, Italy.
1943
27-7-1943
Allied bombs cause a fire-storm in Hamburg.
1943
17-8-1943
Allies take Sicily.
1943
3-9-1943
Start of the allied invasion of Italy.
1943
3-9-1943
British army takes Reggio, Italy.
1943
4-9-1943
Allies recapture Lae Salamaua, New Guinea.
1943
8-9-1943
Italian surrender is announced.
1943
9-9-1943
Allied landings in Italy
Allied armies land at Salerno and Taranto.
1943
11-9-1943
German Army enters Rome.
1943
1-10-1943
Allied armies enter Naples, Italy.
1943
18-10-1943
Berlin bombed
Large British air raid on Berlin.
1943
26-12-1943
Sinking of the 'Scharnhorst'
British navy sinks the German war ship the Scharnhorst.
1943
2-2-1943
The German army surrenders at Stalingrad after a battle lasting 5 months.
1943
1-3-1943
75,000 American Jews stage a mass demonstration in New York. They want their government to help the Jews in Europe.
1943
19-4-1943
Inmates of the Jewish ghetto in Warsaw (Poland) start an uprising against the Nazis.
1943
12-8-1943
The Allies begin night bombing of Berlin.
1943
8-9-1943
Italy surrenders.
1943
28-11-1943
Tehran Meeting
Roosevelt, Stalin and Churchill, the leaders of the 3 largest Allied countries, meet in Tehran (Iran) to discuss how they can defeat Germany and Japan. They also make plans for a peace organisation to be set up after the war.
1943
1-12-1943
Start of daylight raids by allied bombers on German cities.
1944
4-8-1944
The Frank family and the other people in hiding are arrested.
1944
8-8-1944
The people from the secret annexe are taken to Westerbork camp.
1944
3-9-1944
The people from the secret annexe are put on a transport to Auschwitz in Poland.
1944
6-9-1944
Arrival of the people from the secret annexe at Auschwitz. Hermann van Pels is killed soon afterwards in the gas chamber.
1944
20-12-1944
Fritz Pfeffer dies in Neuengamme.
1944
9-1-1944
British and Indian troops recapture Maungdaw from the Japanese in Burma.
1944
17-1-1944
Battle for Monte Cassino, Italy
Start of the battle for Monte Cassino, a monastery on a hill, in Italy. This battle lasted until 18 May 1943 when the Allies eventually took the hill.
1944
22-1-1944
Allied Landings at Anzio, Italy.
1944
18-3-1944
British bombers drop 3000 tons of bombs on Hamburg.
1944
5-6-1944
Allies liberate Rome.
1944
5-6-1944
British minesweepers claer German mines in the English Channel in preparation for D-Day ('Operation Overlord').
1944
6-6-1944
D-Day
Allied armies land in Northern France. Code name 'Operation Overlord'. The start of the liberation of Europe.
1944
13-6-1944
First German V-I attack on Britain
Flying bombs launced from northern France cause destruction in South East England.
1944
9-7-1944
British and Canadian troops capture Caen in Northern France.
1944
15-8-1944
'Operation Dragoon'
Allied invasion of Southern France.
1944
25-8-1944
Allied armies liberate Paris.
1944
1-9-1944
Cities liberated in Europe
From 1-4 September Allied armies liberate Verdun, Dieppe, Artios, Rouen, Abbeville, Brussels and Antwerp.
1944
17-9-1944
'Operation Market Garden'
Allied Airborne assualt on the Netherlands.
1944
25-9-1944
Setback in Arnhem, the Netherlands
British troops withdraw from Arnhem having failed to take the bridge over the Rhine.
1944
14-10-1944
Allies liberate Athens, Greece.
1944
3-12-1944
Home Guard disbanded
Farewell Parade for the Home Guard is held in London.
1944
25-3-1944
The Allies bomb Germany, using 7,000 aircraft.
1944
15-6-1944
The Allies begin bombing Japan.
1944
20-7-1944
An assassination attempt on Hitler led by Colonel Claus von Stauffenberg fails.
1944
30-10-1944
The Nazis operate the gas chambers at Auschwitz-Birkenau for the last time. Then they are destroyed, because the Russian army is advancing steadily closer.
1945
6-1-1945
Edith Frank dies in Auschwitz.
1945
16-1-1945
The Nazis begin the evacuation of Auschwitz-Birkenau. Peter van Pels has to go on a transport, Otto Frank stays behind.
1945
27-1-1945
The Russian army liberate Auschwitz, where Otto Frank is held. The liberation of the camp is now commemorated every year.
1945
10-5-1945
Peter van Pels dies in Mauthausen.
1945
3-6-1945
Otto Frank returns to Amsterdam. He is the only one of the eight people from the secret annexe to have survived the Holocaust.
1945
18-7-1945
Otto Frank hears that Anne and Margot have died in Bergen-Belsen.
1945
28-1-1945
Burma Road is re-opened
Burma is recaptured by Allied forces after the suucesful campaign known as 'Operation Capital' which started in October 1944.
1945
13-2-1945
Dresden destroyed
The city of Dresden, Germany is destoyed by a fire storm caused by Allied bombing.
1945
7-3-1945
Allied armies take Cologne and establish a crossing over the River Rhine.
1945
20-3-1945
Mandalay, Burma liberated by British troops.
1945
15-4-1945
Bergen-Belsen concentration camp liberated
British troops are shocked by what they find on liberating this camp in Germany.
1945
27-4-1945
Soviet troops reach Berlin.
1945
7-5-1945
Germany surrenders unconditionally.
1945
8-5-1945
VE Day
Victory in Europe Day - the war in Europe is over.
1945
5-6-1945
The Allies divide Germany and Berlin into 4 zones and take over the government
1945
1-7-1945
British, French and US troops move into Berlin.
1945
26-7-1945
General election
Churchill loses the General Election and Atlee becomes the new Prime Minister.
1945
30-8-1945
British reoccupy Hong Kong.
1945
5-9-1945
British re-take Singapore.
1945
4-2-1945
Meeting at Yalta
Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin meet at Yalta (Ukraine) to discuss how to deal with Germany after the war.
1945
23-2-1945
Turkey declares war on Germany and Japan.
1945
27-4-1945
The Russian and American armies meet up at the river Elbe in Germany.
1945
28-4-1945
Resistance fighters kill Benito Mussolini, the Italian dictator who supported Hitler.
1945
30-4-1945
Adolf Hitler commits suicide.
1945
8-5-1945
Europe is liberated from Nazi Germany. This day is known as VE Day, the day of victory in Europe.
1945
12-6-1945
President Roosevelt dies
US President Roosevelt dies and is replaced by Vice President Harry S. Truman.
1945
26-6-1945
United Nations Charter
The United Nations Charter is signed in San Francisco.
1945
17-7-1945
Potsdam Conference
Allied leaders discuss the war against Japan, the occupation of Germany, the punishment of war crimes and the new borders in Europe.
1945
6-8-1945
The American air force drops an atomic bomb on the Japanese city of Hiroshima.
1945
9-8-1945
The American air force drops a second atomic bomb, this time on the Japanese city of Nagasaki.
1945
14-8-1945
Japan surrenders, and begins to withdraw from the occupied Asian countries. The Dutch East Indies are liberated a day later.
1945
14-8-1945
VJ-Day
Victory over Japan. Japan agrees to an unconditional surrender after 2 atoms bombs are dropped on Hiroshima (August 6) and Nagasaki (August 9).
1945
24-10-1945
The United Nations is established.
1945
20-11-1945
Nuremburg Trials
Leading Nazis are brought to trial in Nuremburg (Germany). Some are sentenced to death, others to long prison sentences.
1947
25-6-1947
The first edition of The Diary of Anne Frank goes on sale.
1948
10-12-1948
The 51 member states of the United Nations sign the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
1960
3-5-1960
Opening of the secret annexe as a museum. The museum is given the name ‘Anne Frank House’.
1980
19-8-1980
Otto Frank dies in Basel, Switzerland.
Anne Frank Guide
This day in history
Today: 24 November 2017
Then: 20 November 1945

Leading Nazis are brought to trial in Nuremburg (Germany). Some are sentenced to death, others to long prison sentences.

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