Timeline
Anne Frank
The Second World War and the United States
The Second World War international
1918
11-11-1918
Fighting in World War I came to an end with the signing of an armistice between the Allies and Germany.
1919
26-6-1919
The Treaty of Versailles.
Germany has lost the First World War and must pay large sums of money to the victors.
1925
12-5-1925
Otto Frank and Edith Holländer marry in Aachen, Germany.
1925
18-7-1925
Mein Kampf
Hitler’s book Mein Kampf is published.
1926
6-2-1926
Margot Frank is born in Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
1929
12-6-1929
Anne Frank is born in Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
1929
29-10-1929
Black Tuesday
Black Tuesday descends upon the New York Stock Exchange. Prices collaps amid panic selling and thousands of investors were wiped out as America's Great Depression and a world wide economic crisis begins.
1932
31-7-1932
The NSDAP, Adolf Hitler’s party, wins a majority in elections. Members of the NSDAP are known as Nazis.
1933
15-9-1933
Otto Frank sets up the Opekta company in Amsterdam.
1933
5-12-1933
Edith and Margot Frank move to Amsterdam.
1933
30-1-1933
Adolf Hitler becomes Chancellor, the leader of the German government.
1933
1-4-1933
Hitler’s government organises a boycott of Jewish shops, doctors and lawyers. The Nazis say that "real" Germans must not buy from Jews.
1933
14-7-1933
Hitler’s government bans all other political parties. Now Hitler and his party are in total command. Germany has become a dictatorship.
1934
16-2-1934
Anne Frank is brought to Amsterdam by her uncles.
1934
19-8-1934
After the death of President von Hindenburg, Hitler also becomes President of Germany. He gives himself the title "Führer and Reich Chancellor."
1935
15-9-1935
Hitler’s government introduces Race Laws. German Jews have their rights taken away from them. Jews and non-Jews are no longer allowed to get married.
1938
8-12-1938
Fritz Pfeffer flees Germany for Amsterdam.
1938
9-11-1938
Kristallnacht
The Nazis destroy Jewish synagogues, shops and homes throughout Germany. More than 30,000 Jewish men are arrested, and 200 Jews are murdered. Later this night becomes known as Kristallnacht: the "Night of Broken Glass."
1939
2-3-1939
Munich Agreement: allows the annexation of Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia to Germany.
1939
1-9-1939
Germany invades Poland. Britain and France declare war on Germany. This is the beginning of the war in Europe.
1939
3-9-1939
Britain declares war
Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain announces in a radio broadcast that Britain (including Australia, New Zealand) and France are at war with Germany.
1939
10-9-1939
Canada declares war on Germany.
1940
1-12-1940
Otto Frank’s company moves to Prinsengracht 263 in Amsterdam.
1940
27-9-1940
Germany, Japan and Italy make a treaty. They promise to help each other in attacking the United States.
1940
9-4-1940
The German army attacks Denmark and Norway.
1940
10-6-1940
Italy declares war.
Italy declares war on Britain and France.
1940
26-6-1940
France surrenders to the German forces.
1940
10-7-1940
The "Battle of Britain" begins. This is the struggle between the German and British air forces for control of British air space. The British win in March 1941.
1940
7-9-1940
German aircraft bomb London. Hundreds of civilians are killed.
1940
9-12-1940
Western desert offensive begins
British army starts its offensive against Italy in North Africa
1941
16-7-1941
Miep and Jan Gies marry.
1941
1-9-1941
Anne and Margot are no longer allowed to go to school with non-Jewish children. They have to go to the Jewish High School in Amsterdam.
1941
11-3-1941
President Roosevelt signs the Lend-Lease Act.
1941
14-8-1941
Atlantic Charter.
President Roosevelt of the USA and Prime Minister Churchill of Great Britian announce the Atlantic Charter.
1941
14-8-1941
America and Britain hold secret talks on fighting together against the Germans.
1941
11-9-1941
President Roosevelt orders that all German and Italian ships and submarines in the Atlantic Ocean should be torpedoed.
1941
7-12-1941
Japan bombs the American fleet in Pearl Harbour. The next day America declares war on Japan, as does Britain. Germany supports Japan with a declaration of war against the United States
1941
8-12-1941
The United States enters World War II as Congress declares war against Japan, a day after the attack on Pearl Harbor.
1941
11-12-1941
Germany and Italy declare war on the United States; the U.S. respond in kind.
1941
22-6-1941
Germany attacks Russia.
1941
12-7-1941
Mutual Assistance Agreement.
The British and Soviets sign this agreement.
1941
1-9-1941
In Germany, all Jews aged six or older must wear a yellow Star of David.
1941
3-9-1941
The first victims of the gas chambers in Auschwitz are 600 Russian prisoners of war and 250 other prisoners.
1942
29-1-1942
Grandmother Holländer dies.
1942
12-6-1942
Anne Frank is given a diary on her thirteenth birthday.
1942
5-7-1942
Margot Frank receives a call-up notice. She has to report for a ‘work camp’ in Germany.
1942
6-7-1942
The Frank family go into hiding in the secret annexe at Prinsengracht 263 in Amsterdam.
1942
13-7-1942
The van Pels family go into hiding in the secret annex.
1942
16-11-1942
Fritz Pfeffer (Albert Dussel) goes into hiding in the secret annexe.
1942
17-3-1942
Gen. Douglas MacArthur arrives in Australia to become supreme commander of Allied forces in the southwest Pacific theater.
1942
7-6-1942
The Americans defeat the Japanese navy at Midway island in the Pacific Ocean.
1942
11-6-1942
The United States and the Soviet Union sign a lend lease agreement to aid the Soviet war effort in World War II.
1942
26-11-1942
President Roosevelt orders nationwide gasoline rationing, beginning December 1.
1942
20-1-1942
Wannsee Conference
High-ranking Nazis come together in a secret meeting. They discuss how to carry out a decision which Hitler had already taken in 1941: to kill all 11 million Jews in Europe.
1942
15-2-1942
British troops in Singapore surrender to the Japanese after 7 days of fighting.
1942
13-5-1942
German and Italian troops surrender in North Africa.
1942
11-6-1942
Adolph Eichmann discusses plans to deport the Jews from France, Belgium and the Netherlands with high-ranking Nazis from these countries.
1942
5-10-1942
Heinrich Himmler gives the order to transport all Jews in concentration camps in Germany to Auschwitz extermination camp.
1942
4-11-1942
The German army retreats from North Africa after it is defeated in Egypt by British troops led by Montgomery.
1942
8-11-1942
Operation Torch
Start of "Operation Torch" when the Allies invade Morocco, Tunisia and Algeria.
1942
1-12-1942
Declaration of United Nations
The declaration is signed by the 26 Allies nations.
1943
14-1-1943
Casablanca Conference
Churchill and Roosevelt meet in Casablanca, Morocco. During the conference Roosevelt announces that the war can only end with the unconditional surrender by Germany.
1943
9-2-1943
The battle of Guadalcanal in the southwest Pacific ends with an American victory over Japanese forces.
1943
1-3-1943
75,000 American Jews stage a mass demonstration in New York. They want their government to help the Jews in Europe.
1943
23-11-1943
US forces seize control of the Tarawa and Makin atolls from the Japanese.
1943
2-2-1943
The German army surrenders at Stalingrad after a battle lasting 5 months.
1943
16-3-1943
Battle of the Atlantic
Start of the Battle of the Atlantic which lasted until 20 March 1943.
1943
7-5-1943
Allies take Tunisia, North Africa.
1943
12-8-1943
The Allies begin night bombing of Berlin.
1943
8-9-1943
Italy surrenders.
1943
13-10-1943
Italy declares war on Germany, its one-time Axis partner.
1943
28-11-1943
Tehran Meeting
Roosevelt, Stalin and Churchill, the leaders of the 3 largest Allied countries, meet in Tehran (Iran) to discuss how they can defeat Germany and Japan. They also make plans for a peace organisation to be set up after the war.
1943
1-12-1943
Start of daylight raids by allied bombers on German cities.
1944
4-8-1944
The Frank family and the other people in hiding are arrested.
1944
8-8-1944
The people from the secret annex are taken to Westerbork camp.
1944
3-9-1944
The people from the secret annexe are put on a transport to Auschwitz in Poland.
1944
6-9-1944
Arrival of the people from the secret annexe at Auschwitz. Hermann van Pels is killed soon afterwards in the gas chamber.
1944
20-12-1944
Fritz Pfeffer dies in Neuengamme.
1944
1-2-1944
U.S. troops land on Kwajalein and Majura Atolls in the Marshall Islands.
1944
9-1-1944
British and Indian troops recapture Maungdaw from the Japanese in Burma.
1944
25-3-1944
The Allies bomb Germany, using 7,000 aircraft.
1944
6-6-1944
D-Day
Allied armies land in Northern France. Code name "Operation Overlord." The start of the liberation of Europe.
1944
15-6-1944
The Allies begin bombing Japan.
1944
20-7-1944
An assassination attempt on Hitler led by Colonel Claus von Stauffenberg fails.
1944
1-8-1944
Inmates of the Jewish ghetto in Warsaw (Poland) start an uprising against the Nazis.
1944
25-8-1944
Allied armies liberate Paris.
1944
1-9-1944
Cities liberated in Europe
From 1-4 September Allied armies liberate Verdun, Dieppe, Artios, Rouen, Abbeville, Brussels and Antwerp.
1944
17-9-1944
Operation Market Garden
Allied Airborne assualt on the Netherlands.
1944
14-10-1944
Allies liberate Athens, Greece.
1944
30-10-1944
The Nazis operate the gas chambers at Auschwitz-Birkenau for the last time. Then they are destroyed, because the Russian army is advancing steadily closer.
1945
6-1-1945
Edith Frank dies in Auschwitz.
1945
16-1-1945
The Nazis begin the evacuation of Auschwitz-Birkenau. Peter van Pels has to go on a transport, Otto Frank stays behind.
1945
27-1-1945
The Russian army liberate Auschwitz, where Otto Frank is held. The liberation of the camp is now commemorated every year.
1945
3-6-1945
Otto Frank returns to Amsterdam. He is the only one of the eight people from the secret annexe to have survived the Holocaust.
1945
18-7-1945
Otto Frank hears that Anne and Margot have died in Bergen-Belsen.
1945
19-2-1945
Some 30,000 United States Marines land on the Western Pacific island of Iwo Jima, where they encounter ferocious resistance from Japanese forces. The Americans take control of the strategically important island after a month-long battle.
1945
1-4-1945
American forces invade Okinawa.
1945
25-4-1945
United States and Soviet forces link up on the Elbe River, in central Europe.
1945
12-6-1945
President Roosevelt dies.
US President Roosevelt dies and is replaced by Vice President Harry S. Truman.
1945
6-8-1945
The American air force drops an atomic bomb on the Japanese city of Hiroshima.
1945
9-8-1945
The American air force drops a second atomic bomb, this time on the Japanese city of Nagasaki.
1945
4-12-1945
The US Senate approves United States participation in the United Nations.
1945
4-2-1945
Meeting at Yalta
Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin meet at Yalta (Ukraine) to discuss how to deal with Germany after the war.
1945
13-2-1945
Dresden destroyed
The city of Dresden, Germany is destoyed by a fire storm caused by Allied bombing.
1945
23-2-1945
Turkey declares war on Germany and Japan.
1945
20-3-1945
Mandalay, Burma liberated by British troops.
1945
15-4-1945
Bergen-Belsen concentration camp in Germany is liberated.
1945
28-4-1945
Resistance fighters kill Benito Mussolini, the Italian dictator who supported Hitler.
1945
30-4-1945
Adolf Hitler commits suicide.
1945
7-5-1945
Germany surrenders unconditionally.
1945
8-5-1945
Europe is liberated from Nazi Germany. This day is known as VE Day, the day of victory in Europe.
1945
5-6-1945
The Allies divide Germany and Berlin into 4 zones and take over the government
1945
26-6-1945
United Nations Charter
The United Nations Charter is signed in San Francisco.
1945
1-7-1945
British, French and US troops move into Berlin.
1945
17-7-1945
Potsdam Conference
Allied leaders discuss the war against Japan, the occupation of Germany, the punishment of war crimes and the new borders in Europe.
1945
14-8-1945
Japan surrenders, and begins to withdraw from the occupied Asian countries. The Dutch East Indies are liberated a day later.
1945
14-8-1945
VJ-Day
Victory over Japan. Japan agree to an unconditional surrender after 2 atoms bombs are dropped on hiroshima (6 august) and Nagasaki (9 August).
1945
24-10-1945
The United Nations officially comes into existence as its charter takes effect.
1945
20-11-1945
Nuremburg Trials
Leading Nazis are brought to trial in Nuremburg (Germany). Some are sentenced to death, others to long prison sentences.
1946
31-12-1946
President Truman officially proclaimes the end of hostilities in World War II.
1947
25-6-1947
The first edition of The Diary of Anne Frank goes on sale.
1948
10-12-1948
The 51 member states of the United Nations sign the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
1960
3-5-1960
Opening of the secret annex as a museum. The museum is given the name "Anne Frank House."
1980
19-8-1980
Otto Frank dies in Basel, Switzerland.
Anne Frank Guide
This day in history
Today: 28 August 2014
Then: 25 August 1939

Britain and Poland sign a Mutual Assistance Treaty.

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