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Secret annexe
The helpers
Otto and the helpers
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The helpers

This is a shopping list. It says: black pudding, liver sausage, calf’s feet or a small calf’s head. Hermann van Pels wrote it for Miep Gies. But of course apart from meat the eight people in hiding need a lot more help.

Miep Gies is one of the helpers of the eight people in hiding in the secret annexe. The other helpers are Johannes Kleiman, Victor Kugler and Bep Voskuijl. Bep Voskuijl’s father has also helped the people in hiding, because he made the movable bookcase which hides the entrance to the secret annexe.


The helpers all have different tasks. Miep Gies and Bep Voskuijl take care of the shopping. Miep also brings library books every week, so that the people in hiding have something to read. Bep signs up for correspondence courses in her own name, which the people in hiding then follow: a shorthand course for Peter, Anne and Margot, and for Margot a Latin course too.


Victor Kugler keeps the business running and regularly brings newspapers and magazines for the people in hiding. Johannes Kleiman has helped to fit out the secret annexe. During the time in hiding he, like Victor Kugler, is mainly concerned with running the business and with the safety of the people in hiding.
Helping is dangerous. There are severe penalties for helping Jews, so the helpers are taking a great risk.

Anne Frank Guide
This day in history
Today: 18 November 2018
Then: 16 November 1942

Fritz Pfeffer (Albert Dussel) goes into hiding in the secret annex.

View the timeline