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Anne Frank
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Helpers
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Miep Gies
Johannes Kleiman
Victor Kugler
Bep Voskuijl
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Helpers

Four of Otto Frank’s employees help the people in hiding: Miep Gies, Johannes Kleiman, Victor Kugler and Bep Voskuijl. They keep them supplied with food, clothes, books and many other things. The helpers hide the entrance to the secret annex behind a movable bookcase. Not all Dutch Jews have been able to find such a good hiding place.

Even if they would want to, many Dutch people don’t dare to help Jews, because to do so risks severe punishment. Sometimes people dare to help one Jewish man, woman or child, but a whole family? That’s too dangerous. Jewish families can hardly ever stay together in the same hiding place.

Reading and studying

Life is very hard for the people in hiding in the secret annex. All they can do is wait and hope for the best. They can’t do much to change their own situation. They have to stay indoors 24 hours a day. Anne reads and studies a lot, and often writes in her diary.

Round-ups

The people in hiding are constantly afraid they’ll be discovered. There are many round-ups in Amsterdam. During these raids, called ‘razzias’, all houses in a street or a neighborhood are searched. The Nazis arrest any Jewish people they can find and send them to concentration camps. Sometimes, Anne feels encouraged when she hears about acts of resistance or that the German army has suffered a defeat.

Anne Frank Guide
This day in history
Today: 11 December 2017
Then: 11 December 1941

Germany and Italy declare war on the United States; the U.S. respond in kind.

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